Top Cybersecurity Interview Questions and Answers
by Sachin, on Jul 12, 2022 11:09:33 PM
Q1. What is the main objective of cyber security?
Cybersecurity aims to protect the computers, networks, and software programs from such cyber attacks. Most of these digital attacks are aimed at accessing, altering, or deleting sensitive information; extorting money from victims; or interrupting normal business operations
Q2. Where is cyber security used?
Cybersecurity is the protection of internet-connected systems such as hardware, software and data from cyberthreats. The practice is used by individuals and enterprises to protect against unauthorized access to data centers and other computerized systems.
Q3. What are the 7 types of cyber security?
- Malware. Malware is malicious software such as spyware, ransomware, viruses and worms.
- Denial of Service.
- Man in the Middle.
- SQL Injection.
- Password Attacks.
Q4. What are the 3 elements of good cyber security?
The CIA triad refers to an information security model made up of the three main components: confidentiality, integrity and availability.
Q5. What are the 5 best methods used for cyber security?
- Keep Your Software Up to Date.
- Use Anti-Virus Protection & Firewall.
- Use Strong Passwords & Use a Password Management Tool.
- Use Two-Factor or Multi-Factor Authentication.
- Learn about Phishing Scams – be very suspicious of emails, phone calls, and flyers.
Q6. What is cyber security tools?
Cybersecurity Analysts use a variety of tools in their jobs, which can be organized into a few categories: network security monitoring, encryption, web vulnerability, penetration testing, antivirus software, network intrusion detection, and packet sniffers.
Q7. What are the 10 principles of cybersecurity?
- Risk Management Regime.
- Secure Configuration.
- Network Security.
- Managing User Privileges.
- User Education and Awareness.
- Incident Management.
- Malware Prevention.
- Removable Media Controls.
- Home and Mobile Networking.
Q8. What skills are needed for cyber security?
- Problem-Solving Skills.
- Technical Aptitude.
- Knowledge of Security Across Various Platforms.
- Attention to Detail.
- Communication Skills.
- Fundamental Computer Forensics Skills.
- A Desire to Learn.
- An Understanding of Hacking.
Q9. What is the first step in cyber security Strategy?
The first step in securing your information is understanding your business. Building a concise definition of your business and its mode of operation will help you identify the threats and the applicable laws in the industry.
Q10.What are five key elements of a cybersecurity strategic plan?
- Understand the difference between compliance and security.
- Make data security everyone's responsibility.
- Know your enemy.
- Account for the roles of your cloud vendors and ISPs.
- Have a plan for if you are breached.
Q11. How do you develop cyber security?
- Conduct A Security Risk Assessment.
- Set Your Security Goals.
- Evaluate Your Technology.
- Select A Security Framework.
- Review Security Policies.
- Create A Risk Management Plan.
- Implement Your Security Strategy.
- Evaluate Your Security Strategy.
Q12. What are the advantages of cyber security?
- Protection against external threats.
- Protection against internal threats.
- Regulation compliance.
- Improved productivity.
- Cost savings and value.
- Brand trust and reputation.
Q13. What is Cross-Site Scripting and how it can be prevented?
Cross-Site Scripting is also known as a client-side injection attack, which aims at executing malicious scripts on a victim’s web browser by injecting malicious code.
The following practices can prevent Cross-Site Scripting:
- Encoding special characters
- Using XSS HTML Filter
- Validating user inputs
- Using Anti-XSS services/tools
Q14. What is a Botnet?
A Botnet is a group of internet-connected devices such as servers, PCs, mobile devices, etc., that are affected and controlled by malware.
It is used for stealing data, sending spam, performing distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack), and more, and also to enable the user to access the device and its connection.
Q15. What is a CIA triad?
CIA (confidentiality, integrity, and availability) triad is a model designed to handle policies for information security within an organization.
- Confidentiality - A collection of rules that limits access to information.
- Integrity - It assures the information is trustworthy and reliable.
- Availability - It provides reliable access to data for authorized people.
Q16. What is two-factor authentication and how it can be implemented for public websites?
- Tw0-factor authentication is also referred to as dual-factor authentication or two-step verification where the user provides two authentication factors for protecting both user credentials and resources while accessing.
- The two-factor authentication can be implemented on public websites such as Twitter, Microsoft, LinkedIn, and more for enabling another protection on your already protected account with a password.
- For enabling this double factor authentication, you can easily go to settings and then manage security settings.
Q17. What is the use of a firewall and how it can be implemented?
A firewall is a security system used to control and monitor network traffic. It is used for protecting the system/network from malware, viruses, worms, etc., and secures unauthorized access from a private network.
The steps required to set up and configure the firewall are listed below:
- Change the default password for a firewall device.
- Disable the remote administration feature.
- Configure port forwarding for specific applications to function correctly, such as an FTP server or a web server.
- Firewall installation on a network with an existing DHCP server can cause errors unless its firewall’s DHCP is disabled.
- Make sure the firewall is configured to robust security policies.
Q18. What is a three-way handshake process?
A three-way handshake process is used in TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) network for the transmission of data in a reliable way between the host and the client.
It’s called a three-way handshake because three segments are exchanged between the server and the client.
- SYN: The client wants to establish a connection with the server, and sends a segment with SYN(Synchronize Sequence Number) to the server if the server is up and has open ports.
- SYN + ACK: The server responds to the client request with SYN-ACK signal bits set if it has open ports.
- ACK: The client acknowledges the response of a server and sends an ACK(Acknowledgment) packet back to the server.
Q19. What are HTTP response codes?
HTTP response codes display whether a particular HTTP request has been completed.
- 1xx (Informational) - The request has been received, and the process is continuing.
- 2xx (Success) - The request was successfully received and accepted.
- 3xx (Redirection) - Further action must be taken to complete it.
- 4xx (Client Error) - Request cannot be fulfilled or has incorrect syntax.
- 5xx (Server Error) - The server fails to fulfill the request.
Q20. What are the techniques used in preventing a Brute Force Attack?
Brute Force Attack is a trial and error method that is employed for application programs to decode encrypted data such as data encryption keys or passwords using brute force rather than using intellectual strategies. It’s a way to identify the right credentials by repetitively attempting all the possible methods.
Brute Force attacks can be avoided by the following practices:
- Adding password complexity: Include different formats of characters to make passwords stronger.
- Limit login attempts: set a limit on login failures.
- Two-factor authentication: Add this layer of security to avoid brute force attacks.
Q21. List the common types of cybersecurity attacks.
- SQL Injection Attack
- Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
- Denial-of-Service (DoS)
- Man-in-the-Middle Attacks
- Credential Reuse
- Session Hijacking
Q22. Define data leakage and its types?
Data Leakage refers to the illegal transmission of data to an external destination or unauthorized entity within an organization. It can transfer data either physically or electronically. It usually occurs via the web, emails, and mobile data storage devices.
Types of data leakage:
- The Accidental Breach - The majority of data leakage incidents are accidental.
Ex: An entity may choose the wrong recipient while sending confidential data.
- The Disgruntled or ill-intentioned Employee - The authorized entity sends confidential data to an unauthorized body.
- Electronic Communications with Malicious Intent - The problem is all the electronic mediums are capable of file transferring and external access sources over the internet.
Q23. How to prevent CSRF attacks?
CSRF is referred to as Cross-site Request Forgery, where an attacker tricks a victim into performing actions on their behalf.
CSRF attacks can be prevented by using the following ways:
- Employing the latest antivirus software which helps in blocking malicious scripts.
- While authenticating to your banking site or performing any financial transactions on any other website do not browse other sites or open any emails, which helps in executing malicious scripts while being authenticated to a financial site.
- Never save your login/password within your browser for financial transactions.
- Disable scripting in your browser.
Q24. What is port scanning?
A port scanning is an application designed for identifying open ports and services accessible on a host network. Security administrators mostly utilize it for exploiting vulnerabilities, and also by hackers for targeting victims.
Some of the most popular port scanning techniques are listed below:
- Ping scan
- TCP connect
- TCP half-open
- Stealth scanning – NULL, FIN, X-MAS
Q25. What is the need for DNS monitoring?
- DNS (Domain Name System) is a service that is used for converting user-friendly domain names into a computer-friendly IP address. It allows websites under a particular domain name that is easy to remember.
- DNS monitoring is nothing but monitoring DNS records to ensure does it route traffic properly to your website, electronic communication, services, and more.
Q26. How to prevent ‘Man-in-the-Middle Attack’?
- Have stronger WAP/WEP Encryption on wireless access points avoids unauthorized users.
- Use a VPN for a secure environment to protect sensitive information. It uses key-based encryption.
- Public key pair-based authentication must be used in various layers of a stack for ensuring whether you are communicating the right things are not.
- HTTPS must be employed for securely communicating over HTTP through the public-private key exchange.
Q27. What are the common methods of authentication for network security?
- Biometrics - It is a known and registered physical attribute of a user specifically used for verifying their identity.
- Token - A token is used for accessing systems. It makes it more difficult for hackers to access accounts as they have long credentials.
- Transaction Authentication - A one-time pin or password is used in processing online transactions through which they verify their identity.
- Multi-Factor Authentication - It’s a security system that needs more than one method of authentication.
- Out-of-Band Authentication - This authentication needs two different signals from two different channels or networks. It prevents most of the attacks from hacking and identity thefts in online banking.
Q28. What is phishing and how it can be prevented?
Phishing is a malicious attempt of pretending oneself as an authorized entity in electronic communication for obtaining sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, etc. through fraudulent messages and emails.
The following practices can prevent phishing:
- Use firewalls on your networks and systems.
- Enable robust antivirus protection that has internet security.
- Use two-factor authentication wherever possible
- Maintain adequate security.
- Don't enter sensitive information such as financial or digital transaction details on web pages that you don't trust.
- Keep yourself updated with the latest phishing attempts.
Q29. What is a DDOS attack and how to stop and prevent them?
A DDOS (distributed denial-of-service ) is a malicious attempt of disrupting regular traffic of a network by flooding with a large number of requests and making the server unavailable to the appropriate requests. The requests come from several unauthorized sources and hence called distributed denial of service attacks.
The following methods will help you to stop and prevent DDOS attacks:
- Build a denial of service response plan
- Protect your network infrastructure
- Employ basic network security
- Maintain strong network architecture
- Understand the Warning Signs
- Consider DDoS as a service
Q30. Explain System hardening?
- Generally, system hardening refers to a combination of tools and techniques for controlling vulnerabilities in systems, applications, firmware, and more in an organization.
- The purpose of system hardening is to decrease the security risks by reducing the potential attacks and condensing the system’s attack surface.
The following are the various types of system hardening:
- Database hardening
- Operating system hardening
- Application hardening
- Server hardening
- Network hardening
Q31. What is a cybersecurity risk assessment?
A cybersecurity risk assessment refers to detecting the information assets that are prone to cyber-attacks(including customer data, hardware, laptop, etc.) and also evaluates various risks that could affect those assets.
It is mostly performed to identify, evaluate, and prioritize risks across organizations.
The best way to perform cybersecurity risk assessment is to detect:
- Relevant threats in your organization
- Internal and external vulnerabilities
- Evaluate vulnerabilities impact if they are exploited