Core Spring Interview Questions and Answers
by Pritha Radhakrishnan, on Jul 29, 2023 11:50:29 AM
Q1. What is Core Spring?
Ans: Core Spring is a Java framework that provides comprehensive support for developing enterprise applications.
Q2. What are the key features of Core Spring?
Ans: Key features of Core Spring include dependency injection, aspect-oriented programming, Spring MVC, data access, and Spring Security.
Q3. Explain dependency injection (DI) in Core Spring.
Ans: Dependency injection is a feature that allows the injection of dependencies into classes, promoting loose coupling and enhancing code maintainability and reusability.
Q4. What is aspect-oriented programming (AOP) in Core Spring?
Ans: AOP allows the modularization of cross-cutting concerns, such as logging or security, by defining aspects that can be applied to specific points in the codebase.
Q5. How is inversion of control (IoC) implemented in Core Spring?
Ans: Core Spring implements IoC by managing the lifecycle and configuration of objects through inversion of control containers, such as ApplicationContext.
Q6. What is the difference between singleton and prototype bean scopes in Core Spring?
Ans: Singleton beans are created once and shared across the application, while prototype beans are created each time they are requested.
Q7. How can you configure Core Spring beans?
Ans: Core Spring beans can be configured using XML-based configuration files or through Java-based annotations.
Q8. What is the purpose of the Spring MVC framework?
Ans: Spring MVC is a web framework that provides components for building web applications, handling HTTP requests, and implementing the MVC architectural pattern.
Q9. Explain the Spring MVC request lifecycle.
Ans: The Spring MVC request lifecycle involves steps such as request handling, controller invocation, view resolution, and rendering the response.
Q10. How does Spring handle transaction management?
Ans: Spring provides support for declarative transaction management through the use of annotations or XML configuration.
Q11. What are Spring Data and its purpose?
Ans: Spring Data is a module in Core Spring that simplifies data access by providing a higher-level abstraction over underlying persistence technologies, such as JPA or MongoDB.
Q12. What is the purpose of the Spring Security module?
Ans: Spring Security provides authentication, authorization, and other security mechanisms to secure Core Spring applications.
Q13. What is a bean factory in Core Spring?
Ans: A bean factory is the core interface for accessing and managing beans in Core Spring, providing a central registry for bean instances.
Q14. How can you handle exceptions in Core Spring?
Ans: Core Spring provides mechanisms such as exception handling using @ExceptionHandler, @ControllerAdvice, or configuring global exception handlers.
Q15. Explain the concept of autowiring in Core Spring.
Ans: Autowiring is a feature in Core Spring that automatically resolves and injects dependencies into beans based on their type.
Q16. How can you test Core Spring applications?
Ans: Core Spring applications can be tested using tools like JUnit or Spring Test, which provide integration testing support and mock objects for dependency injection.
Q17. What is the purpose of the ApplicationContext in Core Spring?
Ans: The ApplicationContext is an interface in Core Spring that provides configuration information and serves as the central interface to access Spring beans and their functionalities.
Q18. How does Core Spring handle internationalization and localization?
Ans: Core Spring provides support for internationalization and localization through the use of message resource bundles and locale-specific configuration.
Q19. What is the purpose of Spring Boot, and how does it relate to Core Spring?
Ans: Spring Boot is a framework that simplifies the configuration and deployment of Spring applications. It builds on top of Core Spring, providing additional conveniences and auto-configuration capabilities.
Q20. Explain the concept of aspect in AOP.
Ans: An aspect in AOP is a modular unit that encapsulates cross-cutting concerns, such as logging or security logic, and can be applied to specific join points in the application.
Q21. What is the role of the DispatcherServlet in Spring MVC?
Ans: The DispatcherServlet is the front controller in Spring MVC, responsible for handling incoming requests, dispatching them to appropriate controllers, and managing the request lifecycle.
Q22. How can you secure a Core Spring application using Spring Security?
Ans: Spring Security provides various mechanisms for securing Core Spring applications, such as authentication using username/password or token-based approaches, and authorization through role-based or custom access control.
Q23. Explain the concept of bean wiring in Core Spring.
Ans: Bean wiring is the process of defining and establishing relationships between beans by configuring their dependencies and injecting them appropriately.
Q24. How does Core Spring handle database transactions?
Ans: Core Spring supports declarative transaction management by utilizing transactional annotations or XML configuration to demarcate the boundaries of transactions.
Q25. What are the benefits of using Core Spring for enterprise application development?
Ans: Core Spring simplifies and enhances enterprise application development by providing features like dependency injection, AOP, MVC framework, data access, security, and integration capabilities, resulting in more manageable, modular, and scalable applications.