IOT Interview Questions and Answers

IOT Interview Questions and Answers

1.What is IoT?

Answer: IoT stands for Internet of Things. It is basically a network using which things can communicate with each other using internet as means of communication between them. All the things should be IP protocol enabled in order to have this concept possible. Not one but multiple technologies are involved to make IoT a great success.

2.There may be some questions on Linux OS, as it is most popular in IoT domain.

Answer: One can refer the same on net on very basics such as what are the qualities of linux OS? What are the features of linux OS over other Operating Systems etc.

This set of IoT(Internet Of Things) interview questions and answers are useful for freshers and experienced level of job positions.

3.What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on Infrastructure and Smart Cities Sector?

Answer: The capabilities of the smart grid, smart buildings, and ITS combined with IoT components in other public utilities, such as roadways, sewage and water transport and treatment, public transportation, and waste removal, can contribute to more integrated and functional infrastructure, especially in cities.

For example, traffic authorities can use cameras and embedded sensors to manage traffic flow and help reduce congestion. IoT components embedded in street lights or other infrastructure elements can provide functions such as advanced lighting control, environmental monitoring, and even assistance for drivers in finding parking spaces. Smart garbage cans can signal waste removal teams when they are full, streamlining the routes that garbage trucks take.

This integration of infrastructure and service components is increasingly referred to as smart cities, or other terms such as connected, digital, or intelligent cities or communities. A number of cities in the United States and elsewhere have developed smart-city initiatives.

4.What role does the network play in the Internet of Everything?

Answer: The network plays a critical role in the Internet of Everything ? it must provide an intelligent, manageable, secure infrastructure that can scale to support billions of context-aware devices.

5.How Wireless Communications might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Answer: Many observers believe that issues relating to access to the electromagnetic spectrum will need to be resolved to ensure the functionality and interoperability of IoT devices. Access to spectrum, both licensed and unlicensed, is essential for devices and objects to communicate wirelessly. IoT devices are being developed and deployed for new purposes and industries, and some argue that the current framework for spectrum allocation may not serve these new industries well.

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6.How does the Internet of Everything relate to the Internet of Things?

Answer: The “Internet of Everything” builds on the foundation of the “Internet of Things” by adding network intelligence that allows convergence, orchestration and visibility across previously disparate systems.

7.How is Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) different from the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Answer: There are two perspectives on how the Industrial IoT differs from the IoT.

The first perspective is that there are two distinctly separate areas of interest. The Industrial IoT connects critical machines and sensors in high-stakes industries such as aerospace and defense, healthcare and energy. These are systems in which failure often results in life-threatening or other emergency situations. On the other hand, IoT systems tend to be consumer-level devices such as wearable fitness tools, smart home thermometers and automatic pet feeders. They are important and convenient, but breakdowns do not immediately create emergency situations.

The second perspective sees the Industrial IoT as the infrastructure that must be built before IoT applications can be developed. In other words, the IoT, to some extent, depends on the Industrial IoT.

For example, many networked home appliances can be classified as IoT gadgets, such as a refrigerator that can monitor the expiration dates of the milk and eggs it contains, and remotely-programmable home security systems. On the Industrial Internet side, utilities are enabling better load balancing by taking power management decisions down to the neighborhood level. What if they could go all the way down to individual appliances? Suppose users could selectively block power to their devices during high-demand scenarios? Your DVR might power down if it wasn’t recording your favorite show, but your refrigerator would continue to work, resulting in less food spoilage. You could set your washer and dryer to be non-functional, and make an exception with a quick call from your smartphone. Rolling blackouts could be a thing of the past.

Innovators are only beginning to imagine the possibilities that may be achieved by taking advantage of devices and systems that can communicate and act in real time, based on information they exchange amongst themselves. As the Industrial IoT becomes better defined and developed, more impactful IoT applications can and will be created.

Internet of Things:-
Everyday consumer-level devices connected to one another and made smarter and slightly self-aware.
Examples: consumer cell phone, smart thermostat

Industrial Internet of Things:-
Equipment and systems in industries and businesses where failures can be disastrous.
Examples: individual health monitors and alert systems in hospitals

How will Internet of Things (IoT) impact sustainability of Environment or Business?

Answer: Internet of Things (IoT) can significantly reduce carbon emissions by making business and industry more efficient. “By managing street lights more efficiently you can save approximately 40% of energy used to make them run,” Will Franks says.

Bill Ruh, vice-president of GE Software, agrees. “We have created 40 applications,” says Ruh. “One of these, PowerUp, uses sensors to collect weather and performance data from wind turbines to enable operators to generate up to 5% more electricity without physically changing it, which generates 20% more profit for our customers.”

9. What is the difference between the Internet of Things (IoT) and the Sensor Business?

 Sensors can be used in lots of different ways, many of which don’t need to be internet connected.

IoT also includes the control side, not just the sensing side.

10.What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on Economic Growth?

Answer: Several economic analyses have predicted that the IoT will contribute significantly to economic growth over the next decade, but the predictions vary substantially in magnitude. The current global IoT market has been valued at about $2 trillion, with estimates of its predicted value over the next five to ten years varying from $4 trillion to $11 trillion. Such variability demonstrates the difficulty of making economic forecasts in the face of various uncertainties, including a lack of consensus among researchers about exactly what the IoT is and how it will develop.

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11. Why Internet of Things(IoT) will be successful in the coming years?

As the telecommunication sector is becoming more extensive and efficient, broadband internet is widely available. With technological advancement it is now much cheaper to produce necessary sensors with built-in wifi capabilities making connecting devices less costly.

Most important, the smart phone usage has surpassed all the predicted limits and telecommunication sector is already working on its toes to keep their customers satisfied by improving their infrastructure.As IoT devices need no separate communication than the existing one building IoT tech is very cheap and highly achievable.

12.How Cybersecurity might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT), especially in USA?

Answer: The security of devices and the data they acquire, process, and transmit is often cited as a top concern in cyberspace. Cyberattacks can result in theft of data and sometimes even physical destruction. Some sources estimate losses from cyberattacks in general to be very large?in the hundreds of billions or even trillions of dollars. As the number of connected objects in the IoT grows, so will the potential risk of successful intrusions and increases in costs from those incidents.

Cybersecurity involves protecting information systems, their components and contents, and the networks that connect them from intrusions or attacks involving theft, disruption, damage, or other unauthorized or wrongful actions. IoT objects are potentially vulnerable targets for hackers. Economic and other factors may reduce the degree to which such objects are designed with adequate cybersecurity capabilities built in. IoT devices are small, are often built to be disposable, and may have limited capacity for software updates to address vulnerabilities that come to light after deployment.

The interconnectivity of IoT devices may also provide entry points through which hackers can access other parts of a network. For example, a hacker might gain access first to a building thermostat, and subsequently to security cameras or computers connected to the same network, permitting access to and exfiltration or modification of surveillance footage or other information. Control of a set of smart objects could permit hackers to use their computing power in malicious networks called botnets to perform various kinds of cyberattacks.

Access could also be used for destruction, such as by modifying the operation of industrial control systems, as with the Stuxnet malware that caused centrifuges to self-destruct at Iranian nuclear plants. Among other things, Stuxnet showed that smart objects can be hacked even if they are not connected to the Internet. The growth of smart weapons and other connected objects within DOD has led to growing concerns about their vulnerabilities to cyberattack and increasing attempts to prevent and mitigate such attacks, including improved design of IoT objects. Cybersecurity for the IoT may be complicated by factors such as the complexity of networks and the need to automate many functions that can affect security, such as authentication. Consequently, new approaches to security may be needed for the IoT.

IoT cybersecurity will also likely vary among economic sectors and subsectors, given their different characteristics and requirements. Each sector will have a role in developing cybersecurity best practices, unique to its needs. The federal government has a role in securing federal information systems, as well as assisting with security of nonfederal systems, especially critical infrastructure. Cybersecurity legislation considered in the 114th Congress, while not focusing specifically on the IoT, would address several issues that are potentially relevant to IoT applications, such as information sharing and notification of data breaches.

13.What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on Health Care Sector?

Answer: The IoT has many applications in the health care field, in both health monitoring and treatment, including telemedicine and telehealth. Applications may involve the use of medical technology and the Internet to provide long-distance health care and education. Medical devices, which can be wearable or nonwearable, or even implantable, injectable, or ingestible, can permit remote tracking of a patient’s vital signs, chronic conditions, or other indicators of health and wellness.36 Wireless medical devices may be used not only in hospital settings but also in remote monitoring and care, freeing patients from sustained or recurring hospital visits. Some experts have stated that advances in healthcare IoT applications will be important for providing affordable, quality care to the aging U.S. population.

14.What are the main Social and Cultural Impacts of Internet Of Things (IoT)?

Answer: The IoT may create webs of connections that will fundamentally transform the way people and things interact with each other. The emerging cyberspace platform created by the IoT and SMAC has been described as potentially making cities like “computers” in open air, where citizens engage with the city “in a real-time and ongoing loop of information.”

Some observers have proposed that the growth of IoT will result in a hyperconnected world in which the seamless integration of objects and people will cause the Internet to disappear as a separate phenomenon. In such a world, cyberspace and human space would seem to effectively merge into a single environment, with unpredictable but potentially substantial societal and cultural impacts.

15.Will IoT actually work over the internet or will it have its own dedicated wide area network?

Answer: Interoperability between various wireless and networking standards is still an issue and something that forums and standards bodies are trying to address. According to Franks, businesses have to collaborate on standards to create strong ecosystems for a range of industries, otherwise the industry will remain fragmented.

“The IoT is a whole myriad of different ways of connecting things ? it could be fixed, Wi-Fi NFC, cellular, ultra-narrow band or even Zigbee. You have to mix and match what is best for each task,” he says. “Interoperability is essential, for economies of scale.”

16.What will happen in terms of jobs losses and skills as IoT makes devices and robots more intelligent?

Answer: A Digital Skills Select Committee report to the House of Lords in February estimated that 35% of UK jobs would be lost to automation in the next 20 years. It echoes the sort of thinking that Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee?s The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies predicts. Their answer is that you need to switch skills but to do this you need to switch the schools too.

Will Franks agrees. He saw when he launched his business in 2004 that a massive shortage in relevant skills can impede progress, so he was forced to look overseas. The same he says will happen with IoT unless we get schools and colleges to start gearing courses to meet the challenges of tomorrow?s automated economy.

It is a huge challenge and one which is a top three priority for Chi Onwuruh MP and Labour’s Digital Review. Digital inclusion, a data review and a focus on digital skills are she says essential.

Last July the Digital Skills Taskforce called for the Government to review skills development in schools and colleges. The Perkins Review in November last year also called for a review into developing engineering skills to boost the UK economy.

What is clear is that the jobs landscape will change dramatically in the next 20 years. But it will be a slow process and whether or not we are prepared to cope with it will depend as much on education policy as digital policy. The robots are definitely coming but don?t hand your notice in just yet.

17.What are the elements of the Internet of Everything?

Answer: People: People will continue to connect through devices, like smartphones, PCs and tablets, as well as through social networks, such as Facebook and LinkedIn. As the Internet of Everything emerges, the interaction of people on the Internet will evolve. For example, it may become common to wear sensors on our skin or in our clothes that collect and transmit data to healthcare providers. Some analysts even suggest that people may become individual nodes that produce a constant stream of static data.

Process: This includes evolving technology, business, organizational and other processes that will be needed in order to manage and, to a large extent, automate the explosive growth in connections?and the resultant accumulation, analysis and communication of data?that will be inevitable in the Internet of Everything. Processes will also play an important role in how each of these entities?people, data, and things?interact with each other within the Internet of Everything to deliver societal benefits and economic value.

Things:This element includes many physical items like sensors, meters, actuators, and other types of devices that can be attached to any object, that are or will be capable of connecting to the network and sharing information. These things will sense and deliver more data, respond to control inputs, and provide more information to help people and machines make decisions. Examples of ?things? in the Internet of Everything include smart meters that communicate energy consumption, assembly line robots that automate factory floor operations, and smart transportation systems that adapt to traffic conditions.

Data: Today, devices typically gather data and stream it over the Internet to a central source, where it is analyzed and processed. Such data is expected to surpass today?s largest social media data set by another order of magnitude. Much of this data has very transient value. In fact, its value vanishes almost as quickly as it is created. As a result, not all generated data can be or should be stored. As the capabilities of things connected to the Internet continue to advance, they will become more intelligent and overcome the limits of traditional batch-oriented data analysis by combining data into more useful information. Rather than just reporting raw data, connected things will soon send higher-level information and insights back to machines, computers, and people in real time for further evaluation and decision making. The intelligent network touches everything?and is the only place where it?s possible to build the scalable intelligence required to meet and utilize this new wave of “data in motion”. This transformation made possible by the emergence of the Internet of Everything is important because it will enable faster, more intelligent decision making by both people and machines, as well as more effective control over our environment.

18.What are the important Components of Internet of Things?

Answer: Many people mistakenly think of IoT as an independent technology. Interestingly, internet of things is being enabled by the presence of other independent technologies which make fundamental components of IoT.

The fundamental components that make internet of things a reality are:-

1. Hardware-Making physical objects responsive and giving them capability to retrieve data and respond to instructions

2. Software – Enabling the data collection, storage, processing, manipulating and instructing

3. Communication Infrastructure – Most important of all is the communication infrastructure which consists of protocols and technologies which enable two physical objects to exchange data.

19.What are the main Challenges of Internet of Things (IoT)?

Answer: Like any other technology there are challenges which make the viability of IoT doubtful.

Security is one of the major concerns of experts who believe virtually endless connected devices and information sharing can severely compromise one?s security and well being. Unlike other hacking episodes which compromise online data and privacy with IoT devices can open gateway for an entire network to be hacked.

One such flaw is well presented by Andy Greenberg on wired.com where he works with hackers to remotely kill his Jeep on the highway. Another very relevant example is provided by W. David Stephenson in his post Amazon Echo: is it the smart home Trojan Horse? You can estimate the amount of personal and private data the connected devices will be producing once they are on a network. The major challenge for IoT tech companies is to figure out how the communication in the internet of things realm can be made truly secure.

20.What kinds of information do Internet of Things (IoT) objects communicate?

Answer: The answer depends on the nature of the object, and it can be simple or complex. For example, a smart thermometer might have only one sensor, used to communicate ambient temperature to a remote weather-monitoring center. A wireless medical device might, in contrast, use various sensors to communicate a person?s body temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and other variables to a medical service provider via a computer or mobile phone.

Smart objects can also be involved in command networks. For example, industrial control systems can adjust manufacturing processes based on input from both other IoT objects and human operators. Network connectivity can permit such operations to be performed in “real time” ? that is, almost instantaneously.

Smart objects can form systems that communicate information and commands among themselves, usually in concert with computers they connect to. This kind of communication enables the use of smart systems in homes, vehicles, factories, and even entire cities.

Smart systems allow for automated and remote control of many processes. A smart home can permit remote control of lighting, security, HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning), and appliances. In a smart city, an intelligent transportation system (ITS) may permit vehicles to communicate with other vehicles and roadways to determine the fastest route to a destination, avoiding traffic jams, and traffic signals can be adjusted based on congestion information received from cameras and other sensors.

Buildings might automatically adjust electric usage, based on information sent from remote thermometers and other sensors. An Industrial Internet application can permit companies to monitor production systems and adjust processes, remotely control and synchronize machinery operations, track inventory and supply chains, and perform other tasks.

IoT connections and communications can be created across a broad range of objects and networks and can transform previously independent processes into integrated systems. These integrated systems can potentially have substantial effects on homes and communities, factories and cities, and every sector of the economy, both domestically and globally.

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21.Which Companies and Organizations Support the Industrial IoT?

Answer: General Electric coined the term Industrial Internet in late 2012. It is effectively synonymous with the Industrial Internet of Things, and abbreviated as Industrial IoT or IIoT.

Many other companies and organizations are realizing the potential and significance of the Industrial IoT. A recent study conducted by Appinions and published in Forbes listed RTI as the #1 most influential company for the Industrial Internet of Things. Other influencers included Google, Cisco, GE, Omron, DataLogic and Emerson Electric.

The Industrial Internet Consortium also advocates for the advancement of the Industrial IoT. It is a not-for-profit organization that manages and advances the growth of the Industrial IoT through the collaborative efforts of its member companies, industries, academic institutions and governments. Founding members include AT&T, Cisco Systems Inc., General Electric, IBM and Intel.

22.What is the Internet of Everything?

Answer: The Internet of Everything is the intelligent connection of people, process, data and things.

23.What is a “Thing” in the context of Internet of Things (IoT)?

Answer: The “Thing” commonly referred to by the concept of the Internet of Things is any item that can contain an embedded, connected computing device. A “Thing” in the IoT could be a shipping container with an RFID tag or a consumer’s watch with a WiFi chip that sends fitness data or short messages to a server somewhere on the Internet.

24.How the Internet of Things (IoT) makes a difference to the businesses?

Answer: Businesses focus on getting products to the marketplace faster, adapting to regulatory requirements, increasing efficiency, and most importantly, persisting to innovate. With a highly mobile workforce, evolving customer, and changing supply chain demand, the IoT can move your enterprise forward, starting today.

25.What are the major Previacy and Security Issues in case of Internet Of Things (IoT)?

Answer: Cyberattacks may also compromise privacy, resulting in access to and exfiltration of identifying or other sensitive information about an individual. For example, an intrusion into a wearable device might permit exfiltration of information about the location, activities, or even the health of the wearer.

In addition to the question of whether security measures are adequate to prevent such intrusions, privacy concerns also include questions about the ownership, processing, and use of such data. With an increasing number of IoT objects being deployed, large amounts of information about individuals and organizations may be created and stored by both private entities and governments.

With respect to government data collection, the U.S. Supreme Court has been reticent about making broad pronouncements concerning society?s expectations of privacy under the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution while new technologies are in flux, as reflected in opinions over the last five years.

Congress may also update certain laws, such as the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986, given the ways that privacy expectations of the public are evolving in response to IoT and other new technologies. IoT applications may also create challenges for interpretation of other laws relating to privacy, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and various state laws, as well as established practices such as those arising from norms such as the Fair Information Practice Principles.

26.What is Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Protocol for Internet of Things (IoT)?

Answer: Nokia originally introduced this protocol as Wibree in 2006. Also known as Bluetooth Smart this protocol provides the same range coverage with much reduced power consumption as the original Bluetooth. It has similar bandwidth with narrow spacing as used by ZigBee. Low power latency and lower complexity makes BLE more suitable to incorporate into low cost microcontrollers.

Low power latency and lower complexity makes BLE more suitable to incorporate into low cost microcontrollers.

As far as application is concerned BLE is in healthcare sector. As wearable health monitors are becoming prevalent the sensors of these devices can easily communicate with a smart phone or any medical instrument regularly using BLE protocol.

27.What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have?

Answer: Many observers predict that the growth of the IoT will bring positive benefits through enhanced integration, efficiency, and productivity across many sectors of the U.S. and global economies.

Among those commonly mentioned are agriculture, energy, health care, manufacturing, and transportation. Significant impacts may also be felt more broadly on economic growth, infrastructure and cities, and individual consumers. However, both policy and technical challenges, including security and privacy issues, might inhibit the growth and impact of IoT innovations.

28.Why is the Internet of Everything happening now?

Answer: The explosion of new connections joining the Internet of Everything is driven by the development of IP-enabled devices, the increase in global broadband availability and the advent of IPv6.

29.What are the top 5 Machine-to-Machine (M2M) applications in the world?

Answer: 1. Asset Tracking and/or Monitoring in some form or another (Stolen Vehicles, Fleet, Construction Equipment, Wood Pellets, Tank level monitoring, etc.) seems to be the biggest. Low data requirements, high volumes of devices, etc. It isn’t hot or particularly exciting, but it is changing the world in subtle ways and very quickly. New business models will spring from this.

2. Insurance Telematics is huge as if offers Insurance companies the opportunity to cut risk and drive better/more attractive pricing.

3. Utilities/Automated Meter Reading/Smart Grids – lots of regulation and investment into this at the moment. There a lots of national solutions as the requirements and business case are driven in very diverse ways.

4. Security has been an early adopter here. The requirements are quite heavy on the network as many of these applications have a fixed line legacy.

5. mHealth has been out there for a while, but hasn’t really taken off. There are some exciting early adopters. Many of the established companies (largely built through acquisition) have some challenges moving quickly in this space, but when they get up to speed and the business models are established there will be a massive uptake.

6. Automotive is a big one – driven by consumers’ expectation of being always connected as well as regulation.

30.What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on Transportation Sector?

Answer: Transportation systems are becoming increasingly connected. New motor vehicles are equipped with features such as global positioning systems (GPS) and in-vehicle entertainment, as well as advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), which utilize sensors in the vehicle to assist the driver, for example with parking and emergency braking. Further connection of vehicle systems enables fully autonomous or self-driving automobiles, which are predicted to be commercialized in the next 5-20 years.

Additionally, IoT technologies can allow vehicles within and across modes?including cars, buses, trains, airplanes, and unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) to “talk” to one another and to components of the IoT infrastructure, creating intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Potential benefits of ITS may include increased safety and collision avoidance, optimized traffic flows, and energy savings, among others.

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31.What is the Current Federal Regulatory Role of USA Government pertinent to Internet Of Things (IoT)?

Answer: There is no single federal agency that has overall responsibility for the IoT, just as there is no one agency with overall responsibility for cyberspace. Federal agencies may find the IoT useful in helping them fulfill their missions through a variety of applications such as those discussed in this report and elsewhere. Each agency is responsible under various laws and regulations for the functioning and security of its own IoT, although some technologies, such as drones, may also fall under some aspects of the jurisdiction of other agencies.

Various agencies have regulatory, sector-specific, and other mission-related responsibilities that involve aspects of IoT. For example, entities that use wireless communications for their IoT devices will be subject to allocation rules for the portions of the electromagnetic spectrum that they use.

. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocates and assigns spectrum for nonfederal entities.

. In the Department of Commerce, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) fulfills that function for federal entities, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) creates standards, develops new technologies, and provides best practices for the Internet and Internet-enabled devices.

. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulates and enforces consumer protection policies, including for privacy and security of consumer IoT devices.

. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is responsible for coordinating security for the 16 critical infrastructure sectors. Many of those sectors use industrial control systems (ICS), which are often connected to the Internet, and the DHS National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC) has an ICS Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) to help critical-infrastructure entities address ICS cybersecurity issues.

. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also has responsibilities with respect to the cybersecurity of Internet-connected medical devices.

. The Department of Justice (DOJ) addresses law-enforcement aspects of IoT, including cyberattacks, unlawful exfiltration of data from devices and/or networks, and investigation and prosecution of other computer and intellectual property crimes.

. Relevant activities at the Department of Energy (DOE) include those associated with developing high-performance and green buildings, and other energy-related programs, including those related to smart electrical grids.

. The Department of Transportation (DOT) has established an Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office (ITS JPO) to coordinate various programs and activities throughout DOT relating to the development and deployment of connected vehicles and systems, involving all modes of surface transportation. DOT mode-specific agencies also engage in ITS activities. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is involved in regulation and other activities relating to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and commercial systems (UAS).

. The Department of Defense was a pioneer in the development of much of the foundational technology for the IoT. Most of its IoT deployment has related to its combat mission, both directly and for logistical and other support.

In addition to the activities described above, several agencies are engaged in research and development (R&D) related to the IoT:-

. Like NIST, the National Science Foundation (NSF) engages in cyber-physical systems research and other activities that cut across various IoT applications.

. The Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program (NITRD), under the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) coordinates Federal agency R&D in networking and information technology. The NITRD Cyber Physical Systems Senior Steering Group “coordinates programs, budgets and policy recommendations” for IoT R&D.

Other agencies involved in such R&D include the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), and several DOD agencies.

. The White House has also announced a smart-cities initiative focusing on the development of a research infrastructure, demonstration projects, and other R&D activities.

32.What companies are working on Internet of Things (IoT)?

Answer: At this point, the easier question might be who isn?t working on an IoT product. Big names like Samsung, LG, Apple, Google, Lowe?s and Philips are all working on connected devices, as are many smaller companies and startups. Research group Gartner predicts that 4.9 billion connected devices will be in use this year, and the number will reach 25 billion by 2020.

33.How Does the Internet of Things (IoT) Work?

Answer: The IoT is not separate from the Internet, but rather, a potentially huge extension and expansion of it. The ?things? that form the basis of the IoT are objects. They could be virtually anything? streetlights, thermostats, electric meters, fitness trackers, factory equipment, automobiles, unmanned aircraft systems (UASs or drones), or even cows or sheep in a field. What makes an object part of the IoT is embedded or attached computer chips or similar components that give the object both a unique identifier and Internet connectivity. Objects with such components are often called “smart”?such as smart meters and smart cars.

Internet connectivity allows a smart object to communicate with computers and with other smart objects. Connections of smart objects to the Internet can be wired, such as through Ethernet cables, or wireless, such as via a Wi-Fi or cellular network.

To enable precise communications, each IoT object must be uniquely identifiable. That is accomplished through an Internet Protocol (IP) address, a number assigned to each Internet-connected device, whether a desktop computer, a mobile phone, a printer, or an IoT object. Those IP addresses ensure that the device or object sending or receiving information is correctly identified.

34.What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on Energy Sector?

Answer: Within the energy sector, the IoT may impact both production and delivery, for example through facilitating monitoring of oil wellheads and pipelines. When IoT components are embedded into parts of the electrical grid, the resulting infrastructure is commonly referred to as the “smart grid”. This use of IoT enables greater control by utilities over the flow of electricity and can enhance the efficiency of grid operations. It can also expedite the integration of microgenerators into the grid.

Smart-grid technology can also provide consumers with greater knowledge and control of their energy usage through the use of smart meters in the home or office. Connection of smart meters to a building’s HVAC, lighting, and other systems can result in “smart buildings” that integrate the operation of those systems. Smart buildings use sensors and other data to automatically adjust room temperatures, lighting, and overall energy usage, resulting in greater efficiency and lower energy cost. Information from adjacent buildings may be further integrated to provide additional efficiencies in a neighborhood or larger division in a city.

35.Why is the Internet of Everything important?

Answer: The Internet of Everything brings together people, process, data and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before – turning information into actions that create new capabilities, richer experiences and unprecedented economic opportunity for businesses, individuals and countries.

36.What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on Agriculture Sector?

Answer: The IoT can be leveraged by the agriculture industry through precision agriculture, with the goal of optimizing production and efficiency while reducing costs and environmental impacts. For farming operations, it involves analysis of detailed, often real-time data on weather, soil and air quality, water supply, pest populations, crop maturity, and other factors such as the cost and availability of equipment and labor. Field sensors test soil moisture and chemical balance, which can be coupled with location technologies to enable precise irrigation and fertilization. Drones and satellites can be used to take detailed images of fields, giving farmers information about crop yield, nutrient deficiencies, and weed locations.

For ranching and animal operations, radio frequency identification (RFID) chips and electronic identification readers (EID) help monitor animal movements, feeding patterns, and breeding capabilities, while maintaining detailed records on individual animals.

37.Can all IoT devices talk to each other? What is the Standard for Communication between these devices?

Answer: With so many companies working on different products, technologies and platforms, making all these devices communicate with each other is no small feat ? seamless overall compatibility likely won?t happen.

Several groups are working to create an open standard that would allow interoperability among the various products. Among them are the AllSeen Alliance, whose members include Qualcomm, LG, Microsoft, Panasonic and Sony; and the Open Interconnect Consortium, which has the support of Intel, Cisco, GE, Samsung and HP.

While their end goal is the same, there are some differences to overcome. For example, the OIC says the AllSeen Alliance doesn?t do enough in the areas of security and intellectual property protection. The AllSeen Alliance says that these issues have not been a problem for its more than 110 members.

It?s not clear how the standards battle will play out, though many believe we?ll end up with three to four different standards rather than a single winner (think iOS and Android).

In the meantime, one way consumers can get around the problem is by getting a hub that supports multiple wireless technologies, such as the one offered by SmartThings.

38.Should the consumers be concerned about security and privacy issues considering the amount of data Internet of Things (IoT) collects?

Answer: The various amounts of data collected by smart home devices, connected cars and wearables have many people worried about the potential risk of personal data getting into the wrong hands. The increased number of access points also poses a security risk.

The Federal Trade Commission has expressed concerns, and has recommended that companies take several precautions in order to protect their customers. The FTC, however, doesn’t have the authority to enforce regulations on IoT devices, so it is unclear how many companies will heed its advice.

For example, Apple requires that companies developing products for its HomeKit platform include end-to-end encryption and authentication and a privacy policy. The company also said it doesn’t collect any customer data related to HomeKit accessories.

39.What is meant by a Smart City, in the context of Internet Of Things (IoT)?

Answer: As with IoT and other popular technology terms, there is no established consensus definition or set of criteria for characterizing what a smart city is. Specific characterizations vary widely, but in general they involve the use of IoT and related technologies to improve energy, transportation, governance, and other municipal services for specified goals such as sustainability or improved quality of life.

The related technologies include:-
. Social media (such as Facebook and Twitter),
. Mobile computing (such as smartphones and wearable devices),
. Data Analytics (big data ? the processing and use of very large data sets; and open data ? databases that are publicly accessible), and
. Cloud computing (the delivery of computing services from a remote location, analogous to the way utilities such as electricity are provided).

Together, these are sometimes called SMAC.

40.What is GainSpan’s GS2000 Protocol for Internet of Things (IoT)?

Answer: GainSpan’s GS2000 is one such tech which used both ZigBee and Wi-Fi. It makes optimum use of power by putting the device into energy-saving standby mode when no data transmission is taking place. Only when device is awaked or checked for connection failure the high power consumption connection of Wi-Fi is used.

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41.What risks and challenges should be considered in the Internet of Everything?

Answer: Some important considerations in the Internet of Everything include privacy, security, energy consumption and network congestion.

42.How Lack of Uniform Technical Standards might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Answer: Currently, there is no single universally recognized set of technical standards for the IoT, especially with respect to communications, or even a commonly accepted definition among the various organizations that have produced IoT standards or related documents.

Many observers agree that a common set of standards will be essential for interoperability and scalability of devices and systems. However, others have expressed pessimism that a universal standard is feasible or even desirable, given the diversity of objects that the IoT potentially encompasses. Several different sets of de facto standards have been in development, and some observers do not expect formal standards to appear before 2017. Whether conflicts between standards will affect growth of the sector as it did for some other technologies is not clear.

43.What is the difference between the Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine to Machine (M2M)?

Answer: Generally speaking, M2M could be considered a subset of IoT. M2M is like a line connecting 2 points, and IoT is like a network, a system composed of lots of M2M and triggering lots of interactions/activities.

Giving a simple definition to M2M which is transferring data from one machine to another one. It’s been used everywhere in our daily life. For example, entrance security. Just like using your employee card to unlock a door. When the security detector receives the ID from the employee card and then unlock the door once the ID is approved. This is M2M.

In this case, what IoT can offer? As mentioned, IoT is a network, is a system composed of lots of M2M and algorithms. When the system knows you are the person entering the office, it can turn on the light and the air conditioner of your partition, even it can adjust the most comfortable light level and temperature that you like the most from time to time after learning your behavior for a period of time. The system can get all the data from all the sensors and machines to know, for example, who and when enters the office, how much electricity you have consumed, what the environment makes you feel most comfortable, and other applications.

IoT will make the facilities and things smarter and make people’s life more convenient. Not only machine to machine, but also human to machine, machine to human, and so on.

44.How Energy Consumption might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Answer: Energy consumption can also be an issue. IoT objects need energy for sensing, processing, and communicating information. If objects isolated from the electric grid must rely on batteries, replacement can be a problem, even if energy consumption is highly efficient. That is especially the case for applications using large numbers of objects or placements that are difficult to access. Therefore, alternative approaches such as energy harvesting, whether from solar or other sources, are being developed.

45.What is Bluegiga APx4 Protocol for Internet of Things (IoT)?

Answer: BLE and Wi-Fi together can be used without interference as they are compliable to coexistence protocols. The Bluegiga APx4 is one such solution which supports both BLE and Wi-Fi and is based on 450MHz ARM9 processor.

46.Who coined the term Internet of Things (IoT) and when?

Answer: The term Internet of Things is 16 years old. But the actual idea of connected devices had been around longer, at least since the 70s. Back then, the idea was often called “embedded internet” or “pervasive computing”. But the actual term “Internet of Things” was coined by Kevin Ashton in 1999 during his work at Procter&Gamble. Ashton who was working in supply chain optimization, wanted to attract senior management?s attention to a new exciting technology called RFID. Because the internet was the hottest new trend in 1999 and because it somehow made sense, he called his presentation “Internet of Things”.

Even though Kevin grabbed the interest of some P&G executives, the term Internet of Things did not get widespread attention for the next 10 years.

47.How High-Speed Internet might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Answer: Use and growth of the IoT can also be limited by the availability of access to high-speed Internet and advanced telecommunications services, commonly known as broadband, on which it depends. While many urban and suburban areas have access, that is not the case for many rural areas, for which private-sector providers may not find establishment of the required infrastructure profitable, and government programs may be limited.

48.How Internet Addresses (IPv6) might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Answer: A potential barrier to the development of IoT is the technical limitations of the version of the Internet Protocol (IP) that is used most widely. IP is the set of rules that computers use to send and receive information via the Internet, including the unique address that each connected device or object must have to communicate. Version 4 (IPv4) is currently in widest use. It can accommodate about four billion addresses, and it is close to saturation, with few new addresses available in many parts of the world.

Some observers predict that Internet traffic will grow faster for IoT objects than any other kind of device over the next five years, with more than 25 billion IoT objects in use by 2020,76 and perhaps 50 billion devices altogether. IPv4 appears unlikely to meet that growing demand, even with the use of workarounds such as methods for sharing IP addresses.

Version 6 (IPv6) allows for a huge increase in the number IP addresses. With IPv4, the maximum number of unique addresses, 4.2 billion, is not enough to provide even one address for each of the 7.3 billion people on Earth. IPv6, in contrast, will accommodate over 1038 addresses ? more than a trillion trillion per person.

It is highly likely that to accommodate the anticipated growth in the numbers of Internet-connected objects, IPv6 will have to be implemented broadly. It has been available since 1999 but was not formally launched until 2012. In most countries, fewer than 10% of IP addresses were in IPv6 as of September 2015. Adoption is highest in some European countries and in the United States, where adoption has doubled in the past year to about 20%.

Globally, adoption has doubled annually since 2011, to about 7% of addresses in mid-2015. While growth in adoption is expected to continue, it is not yet clear whether the rate of growth will be sufficient to accommodate the expected growth in the IoT. That will depend on a number of factors, including replacement of some older systems and applications that cannot handle IPv6 addresses, resolution of security issues associated with the transition, and availability of sufficient resources for deployment.

Efforts to transition federal systems to IPv6 began more than a decade ago. According to estimates by NIST, adoption for public-facing services has been much greater within the federal government than within industry or academia. However, adoption varies substantially among agencies, and some data suggest that federal adoption plateaued in 2012. Data were not available for this report on domains that are not public-facing, and it is not clear whether adoption of IPv6 by federal agencies will affect their deployment of IoT applications.

49.What is Industrial Internet of Things (IoT)?

Answer: The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is the use of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies in manufacturing.

Also known as the Industrial Internet, IIoT incorporates machine learning and big data technology, harnessing the sensor data, machine-to-machine (M2M) communication and automation technologies that have existed in industrial settings for years. The driving philosophy behind the IIoT is that smart machines are better than humans at accurately, consistently capturing and communicating data. This data can enable companies to pick up on inefficiencies and problems sooner, saving time and money and supporting business intelligence efforts. In manufacturing specifically, IIoT holds great potential for quality control, sustainable and green practices, supply chain traceability and overall supply chain efficiency.

50.How Remote Updation of Software might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Answer: Several other technical issues might impact the development and adoption of IoT. For example, if an object?s software cannot be readily updated in a secure manner, that could affect both function and security. Some observers have therefore recommended that smart objects have remote updating capabilities. However, such capabilities could have undesirable effects such as increasing power requirements of IoT objects or requiring additional security features to counter the risk of exploitation by hackers of the update features.

51.What are the industrial applications for wireless sensor networks Internet of Things (IoT)?

Answer: You can easily and cheaply buy sensors that can measure a variety of variables that would be interesting in industrial applications, for example (and this is for sure not a complete list): light or sound intensity; voltage; current; pressure; temperature; rotational position; XYZ orientation; compass direction; acceleration; location; fluid flow rate and so on.

These sensors can be interrogated by microcontroller, and data stored to memory card, or communicated in realtime to other systems via Bluetooth, Zigbee, WiFi , Ethernet, serial, USB, infared and so on.

The inexpensive nature of these microcontrollers (for example Google for ESP8266 to see a WiFi-enabled microcontroller) means that you could deploy a large number of these in an industrial setting (even in hazardous environments) and gather data without a large capital investment, and without the worry of “what if it gets destroyed”?

There must be so many industrial applications of this technology that it’s impossible to enumerate the possibilities. The limiting factor is really only “how can we process all of this data”?

 52.Why Should we Care about the Industrial IoT?

Answer: The Industrial IoT focuses strongly on intelligent cyber-physical systems. These systems comprise machines connected to computers that interpret, analyze and make decisions almost instantly, based on sensor data from many widely distributed sources.

The Industrial IoT enables the smart system in your car that brakes automatically when it detects an obstacle in the road. It enables the patient monitoring system in hospitals to track everything from a patient’s heart rate to their medication intake. It enables a mining machine or space robot to safely and efficiently operate where humans can’t.

The world is building more and more intelligent machines that interact with other machines, with their environments, with data centers and with humans.

53.What is Wi-Fi Protocol for Internet of Things (IoT)?

Answer: Counted as the most mature wireless radio technology, Wi-Fi is predominant communication technology chosen for IoT applications. Already existing protocols like WPS make the integration of internet of things devices easier with the existing network. If we talk about transmission then Wi-Fi offers the best power-per-bit efficiency. However power consumption when devices are dormant is much higher with conventional Wi-Fi designs. The solution is provided by protocols like BLE and ZigBee that reduce power consumption by sensors when devices are dormant.

Most important use of Wi-Fi is in the applications where IP stack compliance is needed and there is high data transmission. For instance in applications sharing audio, video or remote device controlling.

As the prerequisites of internet of things are scaling up, companies are working on more integrated solutions. But even at present there are many solutions available for anyone who is trying to build up internet of things applications around the major three IoT components. Vendors

54.What is ZigBee Protocol for Internet of Things (IoT)?

Answer: ZigBee is a low power consuming IEEE 802.15.4(2003) standard based specification, ZigBee is a brain child of 16 automation companies. What makes it novel is the use of mesh networking which makes utilization of communication resources much more efficient. ZigBee based IoT nodes can connect to central controller making use of in-between nodes for propagating the data. It makes transmission and handling of data robust.

55.What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on Manufacturing Sector?

Answer: Integration of IoT technologies into manufacturing and supply chain logistics is predicted to have a transformative effect on the sector. The biggest impact may be realized in optimization of operations, making manufacturing processes more efficient. Efficiencies can be achieved by connecting components of factories to optimize production, but also by connecting components of inventory and shipping for supply chain optimization.

Another application is predictive maintenance, which uses sensors to monitor machinery and factory infrastructure for damage. Resulting data can enable maintenance crews to replace parts before potentially dangerous and/or costly malfunctions occur.

 56.Is the Internet of Everything a Cisco or IBM architecture or trademark?

Answer: No. The Internet of Everything does not describe a specific architecture and is not solely owned by Cisco or IBM or any other company.

57.What effect will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on our daily lives?

Answer: It already is having an impact. A recent report from Gartner says there will be 4.9bn connected things in 2015, rising to 25bn by 2020. What are these things, though?

“Let us not focus on fridges,” says Will Franks, who sold Ubiquisys to Cisco for ?204m in 2013. Franks, who has just helped set up the Wireless IoT Forum, lists a number of consumer touch points. “Keeping track of possessions where insurance companies could reduce premiums,” he says. “Home control devices, maintenance checks for cars and white goods, healthcare and so on.”

He doesn?t mention robots or Facebook. Robots will be connected too in a smart home of the future, at least according to the GSMA. And Facebook? According to The Register, it?s planning to launch software development kits (SDKs) for IoT apps and devices. Heating control through systems such as Nest and Hive are just the start, it seems.

58.What is difference between Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and Internet of Things (IoT) network (sensor)?

Answer: About WSN:

Wireless sensor network is the foundation of IoT applications.

WSN is the network of motes, formed to observe, to study or to monitor physical parameters of desired application.

For example – Motes deployed in Agriculture land, monitor Temp-Humidity or even soil moisture, who gathers data and with perfect data analysis produce results about crop yields – quality or quantity.

About IoT:

IoT is the network of physical objects controlled and monitored over internet.

Now just as WSN, in IoT application you will encounter the monitoring of physical parameters. But desired outcomes are little different.

IoT is more about M2M, it is more about bringing smartness into daily objects.

For example – Device hooked to your Thermostat monitors surrounding temperature and adjust it to most preferred setting for

 59.Give few examples of the Impact of Internet of Things (IoT) on our lives?

Answer: To put things simply any object that can be connected will be connected by the IoT. This might not make sense for you on the forefront but it is of high value. With interconnected devices you can better arrange your life and be more productive, safer, smarter and informed than ever before.

For instance how easy it will be for you to start your day if your alarm clock is not only able to wake you up but also able to communicate with your brewer to inform it that you are awake at the same time notifies your geezer to start water heating. Or you wearable wrist health band keeps track of your vitals to inform you when you are most productive during the day. These are just few examples but applications of internet of things are numerous.

On large scale transportation, healthcare, defense, environment monitoring, manufacturing and every other field you can imagine of can be benefited from IoT. It is very hard to conceive the whole application domain of internet of things at the moment but you can clearly understand why it is such an interesting and hot topic at the moment.

60.How Safety issue might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT), especially in USA?

Answer: Given that smart objects can be used both to monitor conditions and to control machinery, the IoT has broad implications for safety, with respect to both improvements and risks. For example, objects embedded in pipelines can monitor both the condition of the equipment and the flow of contents. Among other benefits, that can help both to expedite shutoffs in the event of leaks and to prevent them through predictive maintenance.

Connected vehicles can help reduce vehicle collisions through crash avoidance technologies and other applications.110 Wireless medical devices can improve patient safety by permitting remote monitoring and facilitating adjustments in care.

However, given the complexities involved in some applications of IoT, malfunctions might in some instances result in catastrophic system failures, creating significant safety risks, such as flooding from dams or levees. In addition, hackers could potentially cause malfunctions of devices such as insulin pumps or automobiles, potentially creating significant safety risks.

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