Corporate Training
Request Demo
Click me
Let's Talk
Request Demo


JDBC (Java Database Connectivity)

22. JDBC (Java Database Connectivity)

Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is a Java-based framework that allows Java applications to interact with relational databases. It provides a standardized way to connect to databases, execute SQL queries, and retrieve data from database tables. In this Core Java tutorial, we'll explore JDBC in detail, providing explanations and examples.

Key Concepts in JDBC:

1. JDBC Drivers

JDBC drivers are platform-specific implementations that allow Java applications to connect to different types of databases (e.g., MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL). There are four types of JDBC drivers:

  • Type 1 (JDBC-ODBC Bridge Driver): This driver uses the JDBC-ODBC bridge to connect to ODBC-compliant databases. It's platform-dependent and not recommended for production use.

  • Type 2 (Native-API Driver): This driver uses the database-specific API to connect to the database. It's also platform-dependent.

  • Type 3 (Network Protocol Driver): This driver communicates with a middleware server, which then communicates with the database. It's platform-independent but requires additional configuration.

  • Type 4 (Thin Driver, Pure Java Driver): This driver communicates directly with the database using a protocol specific to the database. It's platform-independent and is the most commonly used driver for production applications.


The JDBC API consists of a set of Java classes and interfaces that define the methods and structures required for database connectivity. Key JDBC interfaces and classes include:

  • 'DriverManager': Manages a list of database drivers. It is used to establish a connection to the database.

  • 'Connection': Represents a connection to the database and provides methods for creating 'Statement' objects.

  • 'Statement': Represents an SQL statement that can be executed against the database.

  • 'PreparedStatement': A precompiled SQL statement that can be reused with different parameter values.

  • 'CallableStatement': Used for executing database stored procedures.

  • 'ResultSet': Represents the result set of a database query, allowing you to retrieve and manipulate data.

3. JDBC Steps

The typical steps involved in using JDBC to interact with a database are as follows:

  • Loading the JDBC Driver: You load the appropriate JDBC driver using 'Class.forName("driverClassName")'.

  • Establishing a Connection: Use the 'DriverManager.getConnection(url, username, password)'  method to establish a connection to the database.

  • Creating a Statement: Create a 'Statement', 'PreparedStatement', or 'CallableStatement' to execute SQL queries.

  • Executing SQL Queries: Use the statement to execute SQL queries (e.g., SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE).

  • Processing Results: If the query returns results, you use a 'ResultSet' to retrieve and process the data.

  • Closing Resources: Close the 'ResultSet', 'Statement', and 'Connection' to release resources when you're done.

Example of Using JDBC:

Let's walk through a simple JDBC example that connects to a MySQL database, executes a SELECT query, and retrieves data from a "users" table.
import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.Statement;

public class JDBCTutorial {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // JDBC URL, username, and password of MySQL server
        String url = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/mydb";
        String user = "root";
        String password = "password";

        try {
            // Load the MySQL JDBC driver

            // Establish a connection to the database
            Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection(url, user, password);

            // Create a statement
            Statement statement = connection.createStatement();

            // Execute a SQL query
            String query = "SELECT id, name, email FROM users";
            ResultSet resultSet = statement.executeQuery(query);

            // Process the result set
            while ( {
                int id = resultSet.getInt("id");
                String name = resultSet.getString("name");
                String email = resultSet.getString("email");
                System.out.println("ID: " + id + ", Name: " + name + ", Email: " + email);

            // Close the resources
        } catch (Exception e) {

In this example, we load the MySQL JDBC driver, establish a connection to the database, create a 'Statement' to execute the SELECT query, and process the results using a 'ResultSet'. Finally, we close all the resources to release them properly.


JDBC is a fundamental technology for Java applications that need to interact with relational databases. It provides a standardized API for connecting to databases, executing queries, and processing results. By understanding the key JDBC concepts and following the typical steps involved, you can build Java applications that interact with databases efficiently and securely.